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Radhika Gupta verified badge
Electronics Engineer | Editor at The Surg
March 18, 2018 · 361 Reads

Top stories in science this week

Scientists mapped the portal to the cell’s nucleus

Like an island nation, the nucleus of a cell has a transportation problem. Evolution has enclosed it with a double membrane, the nuclear envelope, which protects DNA but also cuts it off from the rest of the cell. Nature’s solution is a massive — by molecular standards — cylindrical configuration known as the nuclear pore complex, through which imports and exports travel, connecting the bulk of the cell with its headquarters.

Reference: Nature

 

By transplanting a special type of neuron into the brain, scientists restored cognitive functions in Alzheimer’s models, shows a new study

Inhibitory interneurons are particularly important for managing brain rhythms. Researchers have uncovered the therapeutic benefits of genetically improving these interneurons and transplanting them into the brain of a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease.

Reference: Neuron

Researchers demonstrate the existence of a new form of electronic matter

Researchers have produced a ‘human scale’ demonstration of a new phase of matter called quadrupole topological insulators that was recently predicted using theoretical physics. These are the first experimental findings to validate this theory. The team’s work with QTIs was born out of the decade-old understanding of the properties of a class of materials called topological insulators The uncommon properties of TIs make them a special form of electronic matter.

Reference: Nature

Researchers unravelled how mesenchymal stem cells from gum tissue accelerate wound healing

Researchers set out to determine whether and how gum-derived stem cells play a role in accelerated wound healing. Their results, indicating that these cells secrete tiny vesicles packed with signaling proteins, point the way forward for therapeutic strategies that aim to harness the prowess of stem cells to treat delayed wound healing as well as other conditions that involve an overactive inflammatory response, such as autoimmune diseases.

Reference: Science Translational Medicine

Scientists engineered a new vaccine production platform and built a fully synthetic flu vaccine

Scientists in Cairns (Australia) and Cardiff (Wales) have taken an important first step towards solving two problems that hinder access to vaccines: they need to be kept cool, and no one likes needles. The vaccine protected mice from potentially lethal doses of swine flu and also worked on human cells when tested in the laboratory.

Reference: Journal of Clinical Investigation

Researchers made an important discovery of understanding of parasite biology that might help stop malaria transmission

Researchers made an important step toward deeper understanding of how malaria blood stage parasites turn the switch to become transmissible to other humans. This knowledge is fundamental for future research aiming to interrupt malaria transmission.

Reference: Science

Scientists have found that clearing clumps of protein in ageing brain can boost their function

As the cells age, they become less proficient at disposing of these protein aggregates, and their ability to respond readily to “make new neurons” signals wanes. Restoring the ability of the lysosomes to function normally rejuvenates the cells’ ability to activate, the researchers found.

Reference: Science

A new study demonstrated improved capture of cancer cells in blood which could help track disease

New research builds on several years of work in isolating circulating tumor cells, or CTCs, by demonstrating improved methods for their capture on clinical samples for the first time.

Reference: Clinical Cancer Research

Neuroscientists identified brain circuit that integrates head motion with visual signals

Neuroscientists have identified a circuit in the primary visual cortex (V1) of the brain that integrates head- and visual-motion signals. The study elucidates the mechanisms by which visual and vestibular inputs to the brain sum together to enable appropriate behavioral responses.

Reference: Neuron

Scientists adapted a powerful gene-editing system to correct dementia in lab

Most people have heard of the CRISPR/Cas9 gene-editing technology, which acts as targeted molecular scissors to cut and replace disease-causing genes with healthy ones. But DNA is only part of the story; many genetic diseases are caused by problems with RNA, a working copy of DNA that is translated into proteins.

Reference: Cell

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