Editor: Avanindra Pandeya
A number of applications in electronics, optoelectronics and batteries have been found when layered black phosphorous (BP) is realized as a two-dimensional material (one or a few layers of the sheet). In particular, contributions to electrochemical energy storage devices, such as lithium and sodium ion batteries and supercapacitors, have emerged. However, critical issues remain to be explored before scaled-up commercial production of BP, such as preparation, stability, and performance. We present the first review of recent progress in BP-based electrochemical energy storage device. The preparation and electrochemical properties of black phosphorus, recent advances, potential challenges, and relevant perspectives in electrochemical energy storage, and the potential of BP are discussed in this work.
Among many applications, BP has achieved great breakthroughs in chemical energy storage devices due to its ultra high theoretical capacity, and can hopefully become commercialized in the near future.
Although the fundamental properties of phosphorene show great promise for use in energy storage devices, their practical application is still limited by two main problems, related to (i) synthesis and preparation and (ii) stability and degradation of phosphorene, that need to be addressed urgently. Moreover, due to low electrical conductivity in BP and phase transformation from amorphous Li3P/Na3P to crystalline Li3P/Na3P, there two additional problems preventing applications to energy storage: (i) low first coulombic efficiency (i.e. the amount of charge needed to charge battery is higher than the charge it will output) and (ii) rapid capacity fading (i.e. the amount of charge the battery can deliver decreases with every cycle of use). Several solutions have been reported, involving: (1) introducing carbon materials that act as the conducting bone; (2) introducing dopants that improve the electronic performance of BP; (3) searching for new types of BP structures.
To date, computational studies have been more comprehensive than experimental studies and now more experiments are needed to explore and verify the extraordinary properties of black phosphorous.
Research article: Current progress in black phosphorus materials and their applications in electrochemical energy storage, Nanoscale, 2017.